Kyrgyz History

The history of Kyrgyz Republic is full of ancient events. At the same time it is very interesting for travellers. When you travel in Kyrgyzstan you will be told about nomadic lifestyle. It is important to note that Kyrgyz people appeared 2000 years ago (201 BC). Actually Kyrgyz people never built big houses and preferred to live in nomadic dwellings - yurts. They liked to get impression of virgin nature and enjoy being close to mountains. Tours in Kyrgyzstan will be inspirable with us!  

Prehistory (1 million years ago - 1 000 BC)
Prehistory of Kyrgyz appearance is closely related with culture and art. In the course of tours in Kyrgyzstan you will get acquainted with the one of brightest examples - Rock Art Gallery in Cholpon Ata. In the period of Bronze Age, it was the place where people used to pilgrimage.   You will have the chance to find there 2000 images carved on stones and rocks as well as petroglyphs. There are petroglyphs of different animals as goats, bulls, horses, deers, camels, dogs and others. In addition you will find images of ancient creatures and human.

Ancient History (1 000 BC - 300 AD)
Ancient history of Kyrgyz people goes back to 201 BC. Since the Kyrgyz closely related with Chinese tribes, they were mentioned in "Historical notes" by Chinese historian Sima Tan. He said Kyrgyz people and other five peoples conquered by the Hunnu. The next source dates back to the 1st century, where they were mentioned in another Chinese chronicle Han-shu (History of Han) written by historian Ban Gu. Actually there are a lot of notes saying that Kyrgyz appeared under powerful dynasties, but still they remain to be not discovered yet. In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan you will have the opportunity to get acquainted with different events of the history.  

Turkic Era (500-1200)
Turkic Era was found in the early Middle Ages from the 6th to the 13th centuries. This period of time shows the migration of Turkic-speaking tribes from the Altai Mountains to the Central Asian region. The formation of first Turkic dynasties and states were made there. Still there were not any notes about Kyrgyz.  Over the time, Kyrgyz started develop its state and built the Kyrgyz Kaganate on the middle Yenisei River, South Siberia in the 7th century where the ruler was Barsbek ajo-king. Over the time the Yenisei Kyrgyz built the empire up to the Irtysh River in the west to the Big Khingan range in the east, from the Angara and Selenga Rivers in the north to the Gobi Desert in the south in the 9th and 10th century. Then Russian and Soviet historian Barthold came to the power of introducing the term Great Kyrgyz Empire.

The Mongol Rule (1200-1400)
The Mongol Rule brought up not good pages to Kyrgyz history in the 13th century. The Great Mongol invasion was created by Genghis Khan. He is one who ruined and then developed Turkic culture. Over the time the Yenisei Kyrgyz deferred themselves to Genghiz Khan in 1207 and the dynasty ruled for several hundred years. 

In the 12th and 15th centuries the Kyrgyz people joined Islam religion. Before this religion was followed by Persian, Arab and Turkic traders and warriors who crossed the Silk Road. They followed this religion for a long time. Some travellers reported shamanistic traditions among the Kyrgyzs in 19th century. So we have no doubt it will be interesting in a tour in Kyrgyzstan.

Kyrgyz consolidation (1400-1800)
Kyrgyz consolidation began in the 15th century where Kyrgyz people moved from South Siberia to the territory of present Kyrgyzstan. Still in the 15th and 19th century Kyrgyz statehood was unknown. After long struggles they established ethno-political system of two wings and centers of many tribes. Each tribe was free and independent.  This tribal system continued to exist for four centuries.

Russian Colonization (1770-1917)
Russian Colonization played an important role in developing Kyrgyz state. Russian dynasty asked the Kyrgyz leader to join them and get protection from all four wings. They were protected from both external and internal threats. This period of time was prospective for both sides. Kyrgyz people protected themselves from China and Kazakh violations. So Russia built its own empire. Over the time they formed a new administrative-territorial system and developed agricultural economy.

Soviet Rule (1917-1991)
Soviet Rule came to the power thanks to Bolsheviks who improved Kyrgyz state in 1917. The equality took place and people were supported by the government. The Soviet period was prospective due to development of the political, economic and cultural changes. the creation of The system of elementary, secondary and higher education, the development of professional literature, theatre, painting, cinema, science and the establishment of a large-scale heavy metal processing industry and machinery were developed. Kyrgyz state step by step became independent.            

Independent Kyrgyzstan (since 1991)
The collapse of the Soviet Union brought up an independent Kyrgyzstan. When you travel in Kyrgyzstan you will visit some historical museum and learn that the national flag, emblem and anthem were finally adopted. The first Constitution of Kyrgyz Republic was held in 1993. Kyrgyzstan became a member of UN on 2nd of March 1992.  But still Kyrgyzstan faced with many troubles and struggled a lot for independence. There were lot killings of innocent people as well as political violence. Kyrgyzstan faced with two revolutions in 2005 and 2010. Over the time the country got stabilization and switched from a presidential to a parliamentary system. In 2017 a peaceful transition of power from a president to another one took place.

The history of Kyrgyz Republic has many significant events you will be told in a tour in Kyrgyzstan.